Objects in Choco

The content of this section is extracted from the Javadoc and the Choco’s User Guide. Here, we briefly described the main aspects of the most commonly used objects. This does not aim at being complete: it covers the basic information.

The Model

Model model = new Model("My model");

As said before, the Model is a key component of the library. It has to be the first instruction declared, since it provides entry point methods that help modelling a problem.

A good habit is to declare a model with a name, otherwise a random one will be assigned by default.

We designed the model in such a way that you can reach almost everything needed to describe a problem from it.

For example, it stores its variables and constraints. Variables and constraints of a model can be retrieved thanks to API :

model.retrieveIntVars(true); // extract IntVars, including BoolVars
model.getCstrs(); // extract posted constraints


We strongly encourage you to attach the Javadoc (provides either on the website or on Maven Central Repository) to the library in your IDE.

The Variables

A variable is an unknown, mathematically speaking. In a solution of a given problem (considering that at least one exists), each variable is assigned to a value selected within its domain. The notion of value differs from one type of variable to the other.


A variable can be declared in only one model at a time. Indeed, a reference to the declaring model is maintained in it.

Integer variable

An integer variable, IntVar, should be assigned to an integer. There are many ways to declare an IntVar

// A variable with a unique value in its domain, in other words, a constant
IntVar two = model.intVar("TWO", 2);
// Any value in [1..4] can be assigned to this variable
IntVar x = model.intVar("X", 1, 4);
// Only the values 1, 3 and 4 can be assigned to this variable
IntVar y = model.intVar("X", new int[]{1, 3, 4});


Declaring a variable with an infinite domain, like :

model.intVar("X", Integer.MIN_VALUE, Integer.MAX_VALUE)

is clearly a bad idea.

Too large domains may lead to underflow or overflow issues and most of the time, even if Choco will finally compute the right bounds by itself, you certainly want to save space and time by directly declaring relevant bounds.

The domain of an integer variable in Choco can either be bounded or enumerated. In a bounded domain, only current bounds are stored in memory. This saves memory (only two integers are needed) but it restricts its usage: there is no possibility to make holes in it.

On the contrary, with an enumerated domain, all possible values are explicitly stored in memory. This consumes more memory (one integer and a bitset – many longs – are needed) but it allows making holes in it.

Modelling: Bounded or Enumerated?

The memory consumption should not be the only criterion to consider when one needs to choose between one representation and the other. Indeed, the filtering strength of the model, through constraints, has to be considered too. For instance, some constraints can only deduce bound updates, in that case bounded domains fit the need. Other constraints can make holes in variables’ domain, in that case enumerated domains are relevant.

If you don’t know what to do, the following scenario can be applied:

  • domain’s cardinality greater than 262144 should be bounded
  • domain’s cardinality smaller than 32768 can be enumerated without loss of efficiency
  • in any case, empirical evaluation is a good habit.

Boolean variable

An boolean variable, BoolVar, should be assigned to a boolean. A BoolVar is a specific IntVar with a domain restricted to \([0,1]\), 0 stands for false, 1 for true. Thus a BoolVar can be declared in any integer constraint (e.g., a sum) and boolean constraints (e.g., in clauses store).

Here is the common way to declare a BoolVar

// A [0,1]-variable
BoolVar b = model.boolVar("b");

Set variable

A set variable, SetVar, should be assigned to a set of integers (possibly empty or singleton). Its domain is defined by a set of intervals [LB,UB] where LB denotes the integers that figure in all solutions and UB the integers that potentially figure in a solution.

// SetVar representing a subset of {1,2,3,5,12}
SetVar y = model.setVar("y", new int[]{}, new int[]{1,2,3,5,12});
// possible values: {}, {2}, {1,3,5} ...

Real variable

A real variable, RealVar, should be assigned an interval of doubles. Its domain is defined by its bounds and a precision. The precision parameter helps considering a real variable as instantiated: when the distance between the two bounds is less than or equal to the precision.

// A [0.2d, 3.4d]-variable, with a precision of 0.001d
RealVar x = model.realVar("x", 0.2d, 3.4d, 0.001d);


Using RealVar requires to install Ibex before. Indeed, Choco relies on Ibex to deal with continuous constraints.

The Constraints

A constraint is a relation between one or more variables of a model. It defines conditions over these variables that must be respected in a solution. A constraint has a semantic (e.g., “greater than” or “all different”) and is equipped with filtering algorithms that ensure conditions induced by the semantic hold.

A filtering algorithm, or propagator, removes from variables’ domain values that cannot appear in any solution. A propagator has a filtering strength and a time complexity to achieve it. The filtering strength, or level of consistency, determines how accurate a propagator is when values to be removed are detected.

Posting a constraint

For a constraint to be integrated in a model, a call to post() is required :

// x and y must be different in any solution
model.arithm(x, "!=", y).post();
// or, in a more verbose way
model.post(model.arithm(x, "<", z));


A constraint can be posted in only one model at a time. Indeed, a reference to the declaring model is maintained in it.

Once posted, a constraint is known from a model and will be integrated in the filtering loop.


Posting a constraint does not remove any value from its variables’ domain. Indeed, Choco runs the initial propagation only when a resolution is called.

The only reason why a constraint is not posted a model is to reify it.

Reifying a constraint

Alternatively, a constraint can be reified with a BoolVar :

// the constraint is reified with `b`
BoolVar r1 = model.arithm(x, "!=", y).reify();
// equivalent to:
BoolVar r2 = model.boolVar("r2");
model.arithm(x, "<", z).reifyWith(r2);

The BoolVar that reifies a constraint represents whether or not a constraint is satisfied. If the constraint is satisfied, the boolean variable is set to true, false otherwise. If the boolean variable is set to true the constraint should be satisfied, unsatisfied otherwise.

Reifying constraints is helpful to express conditions like: (x = y) xor (x > 15) :

BoolVar c1 = model.arithm(x, "=", y).reify();
BoolVar c2 = model.arithm(x, ">", 15).reify();
model.arithm(c1, "+", c2, "=", 1).post();


A reified constraint should not be posted. Indeed, posting it will declare it as a hard constraint, to be satisfied, reifying it will declare it as a soft constraint, that can be unsatisfied. Both state cannot co-exist simultaneously: hard state dominates soft one.


A constraint that is neither posted or reified is not considered at all in the resolution. Make sure all constraints are either posted or reified.

There are more than 80 constraints in Choco, and anyone can create its own constraint easily. Native constraints are provided by the model, as seen before. A look at the Javadoc gives a big picture of the ones available. In this tutorial, we will have a look at the most commonly used ones.

The Solver

The Model serves at describing the problem with variables and constraints. The resolution is managed by the Solver.

Model model = new Model("My problem");
// variables declaration
// constraints declaration
Solver solver = model.getSolver();
Solution solution = solver.findSolution();

Having access to the Solver is needed to tune the resolution and launch it. It provides methods to configure search strategies, to define resolution goals (i.e., finding one solution, all solutions or optimal solutions) and getting resolution statistics.

Instead of listing all resolution features, we will see some of them in the following.

Modelling and Solving

Carefully selecting variables and constraints to describe a problem in a model is a tough task to do. Indeed, some knowledge of the available constraints (or their reformulations), their filtering strength and complexity, is needed to take advantage of Constraint Programming. This has to be both taught and experimented. Same goes with the resolution tuning. Using Choco has a black-box solver results in good performance on average. But, injecting problem expertise in the search process is a key component of success. Choco offers a large range of features to let you good chances to master your problem.